Mga Pahina

Vitamin B7


Vitamin B7 or biotin as it is sometimes referred to, is a water soluble B complex vitamin. Biotin is a coenzyme in the metabolism of leucine and fatty acids and is made up of a tetrahydroimidizalone ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. The tetrahydrothiophene ring has a valeric acid substituent attached to one of its carbon atoms. Biotin is important in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis

Vitamin B7: Functions in the Human Body

Vitamin B7 (biotin) is vital for the production of fatty acids, cell growth, and the metabolism of amino acids and fats. Biotin assists in the citric acid cycle, which is the process of generating energy for aerobic respiration. Biotin is not only important for metabolic processes but for helping carbon dioxide transfer and maintaining steady blood sugar level. Biotin promotes healthy hair and nails and although it is found in many cosmetic products it cannot be absorbed through the skin. Biotin can be sourced from various foods, including beans, brewer's yeast, cauliflower, egg yolks, fish, kidney, legumes, liver, meat, molasses, dairy products, nuts, oatmeal, oysters, peanut butter, poultry, wheat germ, and whole grains. Its abundance in food means that it is naturally consumed as part of a balanced diet.

Vitamin B7: Recommended Daily Intake

Currently there is no RDI set for biotin but there are suggested adequate intake levels (AI).
  • Infants 0-12 months- 7mcg
  • Children 1-3 years – 8 mcg
  • Children 4-8 years – 12 mcg
  • Children 9-13 years – 20mcg
  • Adolescents 14-18 years – 25mcg
  • Adults over 18 years and pregnant women – 30 mcg
  • Lactating women – 35 mcg
Vitamin B7 deficiency is rare and symptoms are fairly mild and easily addressed with supplementation. Symptoms of deficiency are alopecia, dermatitis (a red scaly rash may appear around the eyes, nose, and mouth), and conjunctivitis. Neurological symptoms may also occur in the form of depression, hallucination, lethargy, and numbness and tingling. There is a condition known as "biotin-deficient face,” where the main characteristic is an unusual fat distribution across the face usually accompanied by a rash. Raw egg whites are known to bind vitamin B7 and stop it from being absorbed in the intestine. There is also some evidence that smoking may contribute to deficiency.

Vitamin B7: Risk of Overdose

Studies conducted on animals have show little if any toxic effects from high doses of biotin, therefore it is highly likely that humans can tolerate far larger doses than the recommended daily intake. There is no evidence of adverse effects from taking high doses of vitamin B7.

Source: WL

Vitamin B5


Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenate, is a water soluble vitamin and part of the B-vitamin group. For humans and a number of animals pantothenate acid is an essential nutrient. Pantothenate takes its name from the word “pantothenic,” meaning “from everywhere” in Greek, thus Pantothenic acid is found in nearly every food. It is also found in many modern day hair and skin products.

Vitamin B5: Functions in the Human Body

Vitamin B5 is required to metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. High quantities can be found in whole grains, legumes, eggs, meat, yogurt, avocado, and royal jelly. Pantothenic acid stimulates the adrenal glands and increases production of cortisone and other adrenal hormones. Pantothenic acid is essential to well being in that it assists in fighting off infection and speeds up recovery from ill health. It plays a role in the prevention of premature ageing and helps in maintaining the normal growth and development of the central nervous system. Pantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), which is required for acylation and acetylation, processes involved in signal transduction and enzyme activation and deactivation. Vitamin B5 is involved in a broad range of biological roles and is essential in all forms of life.

Vitamin B5: Recommended Daily Intake

The recommended RDI for vitamin B5 is displayed in the table below.
Age groupAgeRDI
Infants0–6 months1.7 mg
Infants7–12 months1.8 mg
Children1–3 years2 mg
Children4–8 years3 mg
Children9–13 years4 mg
Adult men and women14+ years5 mg
Pregnant women(vs. 5)6 mg
Breastfeeding women(vs. 5)7 mg
Deficiency of vitamin B5 is rare and medical study has been minimal. All cases of deficiency are reversible with the reintroduction of pantothenic acid to the diet. Deficiency symptoms are similar to other B vitamins and include apathy, fatigue, paresthesia, muscle cramps, hypoglycemia, and increased sensitivity to insulin.

Vitamin B5: Risk of Overdose

No Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) for vitamin B has been established due to the fact that toxicity is low and death by overdose highly unlikely. Ingesting large doses of the vitamin are likely to cause mild intestinal distress and at worst diarrhoea.

Source: wl

Vitamins from A to Z

Generic Drugs is best by consumers

Generic drugs are the most preferred drugs by the consumers. This is because these generic versions of the drugs are equally effective like the branded drugs and are available at 70% less costs than that of the branded medicines. Even during the recession phase the generic drugs were in great demand in the market. In fact recession phase proved to be the blessing for the generic drugs manufacturer as customers turned their attention towards the generic version of medications. It was the revolutionary phase in the pharmacy market as generic drugs were achieving the unexpected success. Consumers were insisting on buying the generic drugs to the pharmacist and were even asking for the prescription of the generic medicines from the doctor.
The option of the generic drugs had achieved the tremendous success in the phase of last 2 years. People wanted to save the money that they were investing on the medicines; here is where generic drugs helped them. The low costs of the generic drugs helped the consumers to save a lot and there result-oriented effectiveness made the customers to believe in them. It was the option of the generic drugs that created its space in the mind of the people and rejuvenated the pharmacy market during the tough phase of the financial crises. Generic drugs followed the simple rule of quality at the reasonable costs.
Generic versions of the medication are manufactured by following the same formulations that is being used by the branded drugs. It is obligatory rule put forth by the FDA for the generic drugs manufacturer that generic drug must contain the same active constituent that is used in the branded drug. It is only after this the generic drug is approved by the FDA. The option of the generic drugs previously was considered as inferior quality drugs as this was the myth spread by the branded drug manufacturers to safeguard there sale. But, it was the recession phase that brought the truth in front of the consumers that has lead to the tremendous rise in the sales of the generic medications.
The usage of the generic drugs is recommended to be done exactly like the branded medications. Even the effect you will notice with the usage of the generic drug is same as noted by the branded drug. We recommend here to consult the doctor before using either generic or branded drug because he would be the best suited person to suggest the dosage. The intake of the medication should be done strictly as per the doctor's recommendations. Once you get the prescription for the medication then you can opt for the generic medicines. You can get these medicines either from the local pharmacies or through the online pharmacy. But, please check before buying whether generic drug contains the same active constituent as that of the branded drug.
Generic drugs option is being preferred by the consumers because of exceptionally low prices and good quality of the medicines. The low prices of the generic drugs are because their manufacturer doesn't invest the money in the promotion and publicity of the product as they get the benefit of the marketing and advertisement done by the branded drug manufacturer. Generic drug is sold under the name of the branded drug by giving the generic tag as the name. Another reason behind the low cost of generic drugs is that no money is spent on the research for the drug because the same formulation of the branded drug is followed. So, because of all the benefits that consumers yield due to the usage of the generic drugs makes him to prefer the generic drugs.

Cough Medicine

Cough Medications

Definition of Cough:
A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs typically in order to clear the lung airways of fluids, mucus, or material.

Drugs associated with Cough

The following drugs and medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of Cough. This service should be used as a supplement to, and NOT a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners.
Drug Name DownUp( View by: Brand | Generic )ReviewsRatings DownUp
Benadryl (ProMore...)
generic name: diphenhydramine class: anticholinergic antiemeticsanticholinergic antiparkinson agentsantihistaminesmiscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics
1 review(s)Not rated
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Cheratussin AC (More...)
generic name: codeine/guaifenesin class: upper respiratory combinations
9 review(s)
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5.4
Dilaudid (ProMore...)
generic name: hydromorphone class: narcotic analgesics
0 review(s)
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9.0
Hycodan (ProMore...)
generic name: homatropine/hydrocodone class: upper respiratory combinations
19 review(s)
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8.8
Hydromet (ProMore...)
generic name: homatropine/hydrocodone class: upper respiratory combinations
10 review(s)
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8.9
Lorcet 10/650 (More...)
generic name: acetaminophen/hydrocodone class: narcotic analgesic combinations
0 review(s)
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9.0
Lortab (ProMore...)
generic name: acetaminophen/hydrocodone class: narcotic analgesic combinations
0 review(s)
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9.5
Lortab 5/500 (More...)
generic name: acetaminophen/hydrocodone class: narcotic analgesic combinations
0 review(s)Not rated
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Lortab 7.5/500 (More...)
generic name: acetaminophen/hydrocodone class: narcotic analgesic combinations
0 review(s)Not rated
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Mucinex (ProMore...)
generic name: guaifenesin class: expectorants
1 review(s)
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6.3
Mucinex DM (ProMore...)
generic name: dextromethorphan/guaifenesin class: upper respiratory combinations
0 review(s)Not rated
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Promethazine with Codeine (More...)
generic name: codeine/promethazine class: upper respiratory combinations
1 review(s)
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9.8
Promethazine with DM (More...)
generic name: dextromethorphan/promethazine class: upper respiratory combinations
0 review(s)Not rated
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Robitussin-AC (More...)
generic name: codeine/guaifenesin class: upper respiratory combinations
3 review(s)
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9.7
Tessalon (ProMore...)
generic name: benzonatate class: antitussives
6 review(s)
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6.5
Tessalon Perles (More...)
generic name: benzonatate class: antitussives
3 review(s)
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8.2
Tussionex Pennkinetic (ProMore...)
generic name: chlorpheniramine/hydrocodone class: upper respiratory combinations
41 review(s)
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9.6
Tylenol with Codeine (ProMore...)
generic name: acetaminophen/codeine class: narcotic analgesic combinations
0 review(s)
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6.5
Tylenol with Codeine #3 (More...)
generic name: acetaminophen/codeine class: narcotic analgesic combinations
0 review(s)Not rated
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Vicodin ES (ProMore...)
generic name: acetaminophen/hydrocodone class: narcotic analgesic combinations
0 review(s)Not rated
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Several options are available for over-the0counter cough medications. Aside from the different brand names, there are two different classifications. Expectorants and cough suppressants are both available cough medicines but they work differently.

Expectorants

Expectorants are a class of cough medicine that help to get congestion out of your lungs. They thin the mucous that is in your lungs and help you cough it out more easily. Expectorants are useful when you have thick congestion and you can't cough it out on your own. Because they help make your cough more productive, expectorants can help prevent illnesses such as pneumonia.

Some common expectorants available over the counter include:
Robitussin
Mucinex
Guaifenasin (generic)

Suppressants

Cough suppressants are a class of cough medicine that help you stop coughing. There has been some debate about the effectiveness of cough suppressants. Because coughing is a natural response to foreign substances in the lungs, it is not always a good idea to suppress the cough. Many doctors have found they are not even effective, especially in children. But many people still feel cough suppressants are necessary. If you decide to use cough suppressants, they are best used only at night when you are having trouble sleeping.

Some common cough suppressants available over the counter include:

Delsym
Robitussin Cough
Dextromethorphan (generic)
Top Over the Counter Cold and Flu Medications

Before You Buy Cough Medicine
Delsym
Robitussin DM
Mucinex
Other Cold and Flu Medications
Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers
Medicine for Runny Nose and Sneezing
Medicine for Congestion
Evaluate Your Cold Symptoms
What to Do for a Cough
What to Do for Congestion
What to Do for a Fever

http://coldflu.about.com/od/overthecountermedication/a/OTCcoughmeds.htm

Medical Guidebook